Research findings Water Immersion- Jan 2020
27 February 2020 / 1 comments

January 2020

Every month, ProCcare extracts the newly published studies on local cryotherapy, water immersion, and whole-body cryotherapy. These studies are the basis of our literature database and form the foundation of our ProCcare method. In each newsletter, we will discuss with our key opinion leaders, two studies that provide exciting insights and show the monthly new published studies.

Study 1: Krueger, M., Costello, J. T., Stenzel, M., Mester, J. & Wahl, P.The physiological effects of daily cold-water immersion on 5-day tournament performance in international standard youth field-hockey players. Eur. J.Appl. Physiol. 120, 295–305 (2020).

Method: Daily CWI for 5-days in a field hockey tournament. CWI consisted of 5 minutes of immersions at 6°C/42°F water.

Primary findings: Daily CWI did not improve match performance, perceptual recovery, or biomarkers of muscle damage and metabolic load.

Our take-home message: DailyCWI has not been the topic of many studies so far, particularly not in real tournaments scenarios that imply high-intensity activities and include young adolescent athletes. Adolescents have lower subcutaneous fat and a larger body surface area to body mass ratio, resulting in quicker heat loss. The findings from this study are different than the findings in another recent study from Leeder and colleagues (2019). Opposite to the findings of the Leeder study, this study from Krueger and colleagues (2020) did not find a significant benefit of CWI on different recovery markers over time. One of the main differences between both studies in the way CWI was applied: 5 minutes in 6°C/42°F compared to 14minutes in 14°C/57°F. Machado and colleagues (2016) performed a systematic review to determine the efficacy of cold-water immersion on the management of muscle soreness compared with the control intervention. Analysis indicated that cold-water immersion with a water temperature of11°C-15°C/52°F-59°F and an immersion duration between 11 and 15 minutes provide the best results, which is in line with the study from Poppendieck and colleagues (2013) who also illustrated greater effect sizes at higher temperatures (see graph)

In fact, the too cold temperature might result in counteractive effects with the positive effects caused by hydrostatic pressure (Versey and colleagues 2013) as the additional vasoconstriction might result in enhanced central metabolism. As stated above, an adolescent will lose heat more quickly, and therefore it is very likely that this counteractive effect is even more pronounced. Additionally, the low temperature might not be liked by the athlete, creating a non-enhancing recovery mind. Studies, therefore, should follow these guidelines to evaluate the effectiveness of CWIproperly. In practice, you should use 11°C-15°C/52°F-59°F as ranges as well.

Published studies January 2020:

1.            Kim, D. A., Lindquist, B. D., Shen, S.H., Wagner, A. M. & Lipman, G. S. A body bag can save your life: a novel method of cold water immersion for heatstroke treatment. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open n/a,.

2.           PereiraMartins, R. et al. Combined platelet-rich plasma and cold water immersion treatment minimize the damage following a skeletal muscle stretch injury in rats. Platelets 1–13 (2020) doi:10.1080/09537104.2019.1704718.

3.           Connor,J., Shelley, A. & Egan, B. Comparison of hot water immersion at 37.8°C with or without salt for rapid weight loss in mixed martial arts athletes. J Sports Sci 1–5 (2020) doi:10.1080/02640414.2020.1721231.

4.           Wasserman, D. D. & Healy, M. Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia. in StatPearls (StatPearls Publishing, 2020).

5.           Duñabeitia,I. et al. Effects of Massage and Cold Water Immersion After an exhaustive Run on Running Economy and Biomechanics: A Randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research Publish Ahead of Print, (2020).

6.           Douma, M. J. et al. First aid cooling techniques for heat stroke and exertional hyperthermia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation148, 173–190 (2020).

7.           Magalhães, F. de C. et al. High-intensity interval training followed by postexercise cold-water immersion does not alter angiogenic circulating cells but increases circulating endothelial cells. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 45,101–111 (2020).

8.           Doeringer,J. R., Colas, M. & Khan, I. Post-exercise cooling modified muscle performance and soreness perception. Translational Sports Medicine n/a,.2020.

9.           Dalleck,L. C., Byrd, B. R., Specht, J. W. & Valenciana, A. K. Post-Exercise PassiveHeating Strategies with Hot Water Immersion and Sauna Suits Improve VO2max, Running Economy, and Lactate Threshold. 10 (2019).

10.         Nédélec, M. [Recovery strategies in elite sport : focus on both quantity and quality of sleep]. Rev Med Liege 75, 49–52 (2020).

11.         Checinska-Maciejewska, Z. et al. Regular cold water swimming during wintertime affects resting hematological parameters and serum erythropoietin. J.Physiol. Pharmacol. 70, (2019).

12.         Krueger,M., Costello, J. T., Stenzel, M., Mester, J. & Wahl, P. The physiological effects of daily cold-water immersion on 5-day tournament performance in international standard youth field-hockey players. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.120, 295–305 (2020).

  1. Like!! Really appreciate you sharing this blog post.Really thank you! Keep writing.

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