Monthly Research Review
6 April 2021 / 0 comments

4/ 2021- Water immersion

Subscribe here to get a monthly overview of the last research on water immersion and whole-body cryotherapy and get insights on how these findings can assist you and your practice.

Selected study this month:
Sugawara, J. & Tomoto, T. Acute Effects of Short-Term Warm Water Immersion on Arterial Stiffness and Central Hemodynamics. Front Physiol 12, 620201 (2021).
Warm- or hot water immersion is indicated for sub-acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, (like arthroses), a reduction of subacute or chronic pain, lower muscle tone, sub-acute or chronic muscle spasm, decreasing the range of motion, hematoma resolution, reducing joint contractures, and in conjunction with cold-water immersion (contrast therapy) to optimize recovery.
However, based on the study of Sugawara and colleagues, hot water immersion seems to have clinical significance as an alternative therapy to exercise training as well.

Learn more about this study and how to apply the findings in practice in this video.

Published studies on water immersion in Maart/ April- 2021

  • Adams, W. M., Butke, E. E., Lee, J. & Zaplatosch, M. E. Cooling Capacity of Transpulmonary Cooling and Cold-Water Immersion After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia. J Athl Train (2021) doi:10.4085/1062-6050-0146.20.
  • Alexander, J., Carling, C. & Rhodes, D. Utilisation of performance markers to establish the effectiveness of cold-water immersion as a recovery modality in elite football. Biology of Sport 39, 19–29 (2022).
  • Ashworth, E. T., Cotter, J. D. & Kilding, A. E. Impact of elevated core temperature on cognition in hot environments within a military context. Eur J Appl Physiol 121, 1061–1071 (2021).
  • Breslow, R. G. et al. Exertional Heat Stroke at the Boston Marathon: Demographics and the Environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc (2021) doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002652.
  • Connor, J. & Egan, B. Comparison of hot water immersion at self-adjusted maximum tolerable temperature, with or without the addition of salt, for rapid weight loss in mixed martial arts athletes. Biol Sport 38, 89–96 (2021).
  • Francisco, M. A. et al. Hemodynamics of post-exercise vs. post hot water immersion recovery. J Appl Physiol (1985) (2021) doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00260.2020.
  • Gendron, P., Gravel, H., Barry, H. & Gagnon, D. Seven days of hot water heat acclimation does not modulate the change in heart rate variability during passive heat exposure. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 46, 257–264 (2021).
  • Harwood, A. E. et al. A systematic review of the role of heat therapy for patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral artery disease. Vasc Med 1358863X20983475 (2021) doi:10.1177/1358863X20983475.
  • Hayashi, K. A novel cooling method using carbon dioxide-rich water after passive heating. J Therm Biol 96, 102843 (2021).
  • Keller, S., Kohne, S., Notbohm, H. L., Bloch, W. & Schumann, M. Cooling During Endurance Cycling in the Heat: Blunted Core Temperature but Not Inflammatory Responses. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1–6 (2021) doi:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0509.
  • LÓpez-Laval, I., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., Terrados, N. & Calleja-GonzÁlez, J. Evidence-based post exercise recovery in combat sports: a narrative review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 61, 386–400 (2021).
  • Naderi, A. et al. Massage enhance recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage in older adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports 31, 623–632 (2021).
  • Racinais, S. et al. Hydration and cooling in elite athletes: relationship with performance, body mass loss, and body temperatures during the Doha 2019 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med (2021) doi:10.1136/bjsports-2020-103613.
  • Saharudin, F. S. The effects of cold-water immersion for recovery on sports performance : a systematic review / Faiz Shah Saharudin. (Universiti Teknologi Mara Perlis, 2021).
  • Sautillet, B., Leprêtre, P. M., Schmitt, L., Ahmaidi, S. & Costalat, G. Post-exercise Heart Rate Variability: Whole-body Cryotherapy vs. Contrast Water Therapy. Int J Sports Med (2021) doi:10.1055/a-1312-6914.
  • Sasaki, R. et al. Effects of Cryotherapy Applied at Different Temperatures on Inflammatory Pain During the Acute Phase of Arthritis in Rats. Phys Ther 101, (2021).
  • Scarneo-Miller, S. E. et al. High Schools Struggle to Adopt Evidence Based Practices for the Management of Exertional Heat Stroke. J Athl Train (2021) doi:10.4085/361-20.
  • Sugawara, J. & Tomoto, T. Acute Effects of Short-Term Warm Water Immersion on Arterial Stiffness and Central Hemodynamics. Front Physiol 12, 620201 (2021).
  • Wang, Y. et al. Heat and cold therapy reduce pain in patients with delayed onset muscle soreness: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther Sport 48, 177–187 (2021).
  • Wyckelsma, V. L. et al. Loss of α-actinin-3 during human evolution provides superior cold resilience and muscle heat generation. The American Journal of Human Genetics (2021) doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.013.
  • Worley, M. L. et al. Hot head-out water immersion does not acutely alter dynamic cerebral autoregulation or cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia. Temperature0, 1–21 (2021).


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